PNW Moss Harvest Literature (last updated 2006)


Allen, J. W.  1950.  Marketing woodlot products in the State of Washington.  Bull. 1.  Olympia, WA:  Washington Department of Conservation and Development, Institute of Forest Products.  61 p.

Anderson, H.G.  1969.  Growth form and distribution of vine maple (Acer circinatum) on Marys Peak, Western Oregon.  Ecology 50: 127-130.

Anderson, L., Crum, H., and Buck, W. 1990.  List of the mosses of North America north of Mexico.  The Bryologist 93: 448-499.

Anonymous.  1994.  Missing Moss.  New Scientist, 11 June 1994, p. 42.

Brown, D. & J. Bates.  1990.  Bryophytes and nutrient cycling.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 104: 129-147.

Chamberlain, J., Bush, R., Hammett, A., Araman, P., 2002. Eastern National Forests: Managing for nontimber products. Journal of Forestry Jan/Feb, 8-14.

Cobb, A.R., N. Nadkarni, G. Ramsey, and A. Svoboda.  2001.  Recolonization of bigleaf maple branches by epiphytic bryophytes following experimental disturbance.  Canadian Journal of Botany 79:1-8. 

Colvin, D.K.  2003.  Moss Marketing. The Oregonian, April 10, 2003.  p. 21.

Coxson, D., 1991.  Nutrient release from epiphytic bryophytes in tropical montane rain forest (Guadeloupe).  Canadian Journal of Botany 69, 2122-2129.

Coxson, D., D. McIntyre, & J. Vogel.  1992.  Pulse release of sugars and polyols from canopy bryophytes in tropical montane rain forest (Guadeloupe, French West Indies).  Biotropica 24: 121-133.

Cronemiller, L.F., J. B. Woods, Jr, C.H. Ladd, et al.  1950.  Secret treasures in the forest.  Bull. 14.  Salem, OR:  Oregon State Board of Forestry.  47 p.

Ellyson, W.J.T., and Sillett, S.C.  2003.  Epiphyte communities on Sitka spruce in an old-growth redwood forest.  The Bryologist 106: 197-211.

Fellows, L., 1992. What are forests worth? Lancet 339, 1330-1333.

Freed, J., 1995.  Special forest products:  past, present, and future.  International Journal of Ecoforestry 11(2/3), 62-67.

Frego, K.A., 1996.  Regeneration of four boreal bryophytes:  colonization of experimental gaps by naturally occurring propagules.  Canadian Journal of Botany 74, 1937-1942.

Gunther, E. 1973. Ethnobotany of western Washington: the knowledge and use of indigenous plants by Native Americans. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Hansis, R., Jones, E.T., McLain, R.L., 2001.  Recent trends:  non-timber forest product pickers in the Pacific Northwest.  In:  Emery, M.R., McLain, R.L. (Eds.), Non-Timber Forest Products:  Medicinal herbs, fungi, edible fruits and nuts, and other natural products from the forest.  Journal of Sustainable Forestry 13(2/4), 141-146.

Heckman, H.  1951.  The happy brush pickers of the high Cascades.  Saturday Evening Post.  4:35-40 (October 6, 1951).

Hosokawa, T., N. Odana, and H. Tagawa.  1964.  Causality of the distribution of corticolous species in forest with special reference to the phyto-sociological approach.  Bryologist 67(4):396-411.

Howell, S., 1991.  The brush business.  Ruralite 38(4), 6-11.

Hutten, M. 1999. Staircase Moss Harvest. Unpublished report on file at Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, WA, 5 pp.

Johnson, J., 1992.  The secret harvest.  American Forests, March/April, pp. 28-31+.

Jonsson, B.G. 1996.  Riparian bryophytes of the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the Western Cascades, Oregon, USA.  Bryologist 99:226-235.

Kantor, S., 1994. Local knowledge and policy development: special forest products in coastal Washington.  M.S. thesis, University of Washington.  Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

Kimmerer, R.W., and Allen, T.F.H.  1982.  The role of disturbance in the pattern of a riparian bryophyte community.  Am. Mid. Nat. 107: 370-383.

Lawton, E.  1971.  Moss Flora of the Pacific Northwest.  Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Nichinin, Miyazaki, Japan.

Lesher, R., R. Rosentreter, & J. Christy.  1994.  The role of fungi, lichens, and bryophytes in the development of management alternatives for federal lands in the Pacific Northwest.  [Abstract]  Northwest Science 68(2): 136.

Liegel, L., 1992. Concerns and issues for special forest products research in the Northwest. Internal report to the Pacific Northwest Research Station, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.

Love, T., Jones, E.T., 2001. Why is non-timber forest product harvesting an "issue"? Excluding local knowledge and the paradigm crisis of temperate forestry. In Emery, M.R., McLain, R.L. (Eds.), Non-Timber Forest Products: Medicinal herbs, fungi, edible fruits and nuts, and other natural products from the forest. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 13(2/4), 105-122.

Love, T., W. Denison, J. Donoghue, and J. Zasada.  1992.  Nontimber forest products extraction in the Pacific Northwest:  Who is involved and how widespread is this activity?  Paper presented, 4th North American Symposium on Society and Resource Management, 17-20 May 1992, Madison, IL.  10 p.

Lynch, K.A., McLain, R.J., 2003. Access, labor, and wild floral greens management in Western Washington's forests. PNW-GTR-585, USDA Forest Service. Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

McCune, B.  1990.  Rapid estimation of abundance of epiphytes on branches.  The Bryologist 93: 39-43.

McCune, B.  1993. Gradients in epiphyte biomass in three Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forests of different ages in western Oregon and Washington. The Bryologist 96: 405-411.

McCune, B.  1994.  Using epiphyte litter to estimate epiphyte biomass.  The Bryologist 97: 396-401.

McCune, B. et al.  1997.  Vertical profile of epiphytes in a Pacific Northwest old-growth forest. Northwest Sci. 71: 145-152.

McCune, B., R. Rosentreter, J. Ponzetti & D. Shaw. 2000. Epiphyte habitats in an old conifer forest in western Washington, USA. The Bryologist 103: 417-427.

McGee, G.G., and Kimmerer, R.W.  2004.  Size of Acer saccharum hosts does not influence growth of mature bryophyte gametophytes in Adirondack northern hardwoods forests.  The Bryologist 107: 302-311.

McLain, R.L, Jones, E.T., 2001.  Expanding non-timber forest product harvester/buyer participation in Pacific Northwest forest policy.  In Emery, M.R., McLain, R.L. (Eds.), Non-Timber Forest Products:  Medicinal herbs, fungi, edible fruits and nuts, and other natural products from the forest.  Journal of Sustainable Forestry 13(2/4), 147-161.

Merrifield, K., Ingham, R.E., 1998.  Nematodes and other aquatic invertebrates in Eurhynchium oreganum from Mary's peak, Oregon Coast Range.  Bryologist 101, 505-511.

MRI., 1992. Greenery, transplants, and floral products.   Midwest Research Institute Technical Paper.  Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A.

Muir, P., 2004. An assessment of commercial "moss" harvesting from forested lands in the Pacific Northwestern and Appalachian regions of the United States: How much moss is harvested and sold domestically and internationally and which species are involved? Final Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.

Muir, P.S., Mattingly, R., Tappeiner, J., Bailey, J., Elliott, W., Hagar, J., Miller, J., Peterson, E., and Starkey, E.  2002.  Managing for biodiversity in young Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon.  Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-2002-0006.  USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, 777 NW 9th St., Suite 400, Corvallis, OR 97330.

Muir, P.S., Norman, K.N., and Sikes, K.G.  2006.  Quantity and value of commercial moss harvest from forests of the Pacific Northwestern and Appalachian regions of the U.S.  The Bryologist 109: in press.

Muir, P.S., Rambo, T.R., Kimmerer, R.W., Keon, D.B.  2006.  Influence of overstory removal on growth of epiphytic mosses and lichens in western Oregon.  Ecological Applications, in press.

Nadkarni, N.  1981.  Canopy roots:  convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles.  Science 214: 1023-1024.

Nadkarni, N.  1984.  Biomass and mineral capital of epiphytes in an Acer macrophyllum community of a temperate moist coniferous forest, Olympic Peninsula, Washington State.  Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 2223-2228.

Nadkarni, N. M.  2000.  Colonization of stripped branch surfaces by epiphytes in a lower montane cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica.  Biotropica 32(2):358-363.

Nadkarni, N. M., Cobb, A. R., Solano, R., 2000.  Interception and retention of macroscopic bryophyte fragments by branch substrates in a tropical cloud forest:  an experimental and demographic approach.  Oecologia 122, 60-65.

Nadkarni, N. M.  2004.  Not preaching to the choir: communicating the importance of forest conservation to nontraditional audiences. Conservation Biology 18: 602-606.

Neitlich, P.N., and McCune, B.  1997.  Hotspots of epiphytic lichen diversity in two young managed forests.  Cons. Bio. 11: 172-182.

Nelson, T.C. and M.J. Williamson.  1970.  Decorative plants of Appalachia:  a source of income.  Agric. Info. Bull. 342.  Washington, D.C.:  USDA.  31 p.

Newmann, R.P., Hirsch, E., 2000. Commercialization of non-timber forest products: review and analysis of research. Center for International Forestry Research. Bogos, Indonesia.

NWSFPA. 1996.  Informational brochure of the Northwest Special Forest Products Association. P.O. Box 30, Brownsville, OR  97327.

Peck, J.E. & A.R. Moldenke.  2011.  Invertebrate communities of subcanopy epiphyte mats subject to commercial moss harvest.  Journal of Insect Conservation, 15(4):733-742.

Peck, J.E., S. Studlar, & G. Kauffman. 2011. Nontimber Forest Products (NTFPs) from Pennsylvania 3. Forest Moss. Penn State Cooperative Extension, University Park, PA.

Peck, J.E. & A.R. Moldenke.  2010.  Identifying pathways of biological invasion:  can commercial moss harbor potential stowaways?  Biological Invasions 12(8):2395-2398.

Studlar, S.M. & J.E. Peck. 2009. Extensive green roofs and mosses: reflections from a pilot study in Terra Alta, West Virginia. Evansia 26(2):52-63.

Peck, J.E. & S.M. Studlar.  2008. Guidelines for the sustainable harvest of forest moss.  Evansia 25(3):65-71.

Peck, J.E., H.M. Hoganson, P.S. Muir, A.R. Ek, & L.E. Frelich. 2008. Constructing sustainable harvest schedules for the nontimber forest product of epiphytic moss. Forest Science 54(2):185-194.

Peck, J.E. & L.E. Frelich. 2008. Commercial moss harvest does not disrupt successional development of understory epiphytic bryophytes in the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications 18(1):146-158.

Peck, J.E. & P.S. Muir. 2008. Biomass inventory and regrowth rate of harvestable epiphytic moss in the Oregon Coast Range. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23(1):34-39.

Studlar, S.M. & J.E. Peck. 2007.  An initial characterization of the species impacted by commercial moss harvest in the Appalachian mountains of West Virginia. The Bryologist 110(4):752-765.

Peck, J.E. & P.S. Muir. 2007.  Conservation management of the mixed species nontimber forest product of "moss"—Are they harvesting what we think they're harvesting? Biodiversity and Conservation 16(7):2031-2043.

Peck, J.E.  2006a.  Towards sustainable commercial moss harvest in the Pacific Northwest of North America.  Biological Conservation 28(3):289-297.

Peck, J.E.  2006b.  Regrowth dynamics of understory epiphytic bryophytes 10 years after simulated commercial moss harvest.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:1749-1757.

Peck, J.E. & J.A. Christy.  2006.  The Stewardship concept in practice:  commercial moss harvest in northwestern Oregon, U.S.A.  Forest Ecology and Management 225(1-3):225-233.

Peck, J.E. & P.S. Muir.  2006.  Are they harvesting what we think they're harvesting?  Comparing field data to commercially sold forest moss.  Biodiversity and Conservation, in press.

Peck, J.E., 2005a Harvestable Moss Inventory on the Hebo Ranger District.  Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E., 2005b Final Report the Moss Harvest Monitoring Plan:  Descriptions and Results for Special Forest Products Stewardship Areas SA1 and SA2.  Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E., 2005c Moss Harvest Recovery Report:  Cover, Biomass, and Species Composition Eleven Years After Harvest.  Report to the Salem District, Bureau of Land Management, Salem, OR.

Peck, J.E. 2005d.  What do we know about commercial moss harvest?  Western Forester Jan/Feb.

Peck, J.E.  2004.  Final Moss Recovery Report:  Ten Years After Harvest.  Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E. & P. S. Muir.  2001a.  Harvestable epiphytic bryophytes and their accumulation in central western Oregon, The Bryologist 104(2):181-190.

Peck, J.E. & P. Muir.  2001b.  Estimating the biomass of harvestable epiphytic bryophytes in Central Western Oregon. Northwest Science 75(2):99-106.

Peck, J.E. & P. Muir.  1999.  Commercial "moss" harvesting:  estimating the size of the resource and accumulation rates.  Report to the Eugene District Bureau of Land Management, Eugene, OR.

Peck, J.E. & A. Moldenke 1999.  Describing and estimating the abundance of microinvertebrates in commercially harvestable moss.  Report to the Eugene District Bureau of Land Management, Eugene, OR.

Peck, J.E.  1999.  1999 Moss Recovery Report. Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E.  1998.  Supplement to the Moss Harvest Monitoring Plan.  Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E. & B. McCune.  1998.  Commercial moss harvest in northwestern Oregon:  biomass & accumulation.  Biological Conservation, 86:299-305.

Peck, J.E. & P. Muir.  1998.  Towards sustainable commercial "moss" harvest.  Report to the Eugene District Bureau of Land Management, Eugene, OR.

Peck, J.E.  1997a.  Commercial moss harvest in northwestern Oregon:  Describing the epiphyte communities.  Northwest Science, 71(3): 186-195.

Peck, J.E.  1997b.  The association of commercially harvestable bryophytes and their host species in northwestern Oregon. The Bryologist, 100(3): 383-393.

Peck, J.E.  1997c.  Commercial Moss Harvest Impacts:  A retrospective study.  Report to the Tillamook Resource Area, Salem District Bureau of Land Management, Tillamook, OR.

Peck, J.E.  1997d.  Supplement to the Moss Harvest Monitoring Plan.  Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E.  1996a.  Commercial Moss Harvest Post-Harvest Recovery Interim Report. Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E. 1996b. Moss Harvest Monitoring Plan. Report to the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, OR.

Peck, J.E. & B. McCune.  1995a.  Diversity and growth of epiphyte mats in the Clackamas and Santiam Resource Areas, Final Report to the Salem District, BLM.

Peck, J.E. & B. McCune.  1995b.  Accumulation of harvestable epiphyte mats in the Hebo District, Siuslaw National Forest, Final Report to the Siuslaw National Forest.

Peck, J.E.  1990.  The harvest of moss:  an industrial perspective.  Research Report, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Linfield College, McMinnville.

Peralta, M.G. and J. Wolf.  2001.  Commercial Bryophyte Harvesting in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Chincua, Michoacan, Mexico.  The Bryologist 104(4):517-521.

Pitkin, P.  1975.  Variability and seasonability of the growth of some corticolous pleurocarpous mosses.  Journal of Bryology.  8:337-356.

Powel, J., 1981.  An economic analysis of nontimber uses in forestland in the Pacific Northwest.  The Consulting Division, Boeing Computer Services Company, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

Rambo, T., 2001.  Decaying logs and habitat heterogeneity:  implications for bryophyte diversity in Western Oregon forests.  Northwest Science 75(3), 270-277.

ROD.  1994.  Record of decision for amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management planning documents and standards and guidelines for management of habitat for late-successional and old-growth forest related species within the range of the northern spotted owl.  U. S. Government Printing Office 1994-589-00001, Washington, D.C.

Rosso, A. L.  2000.  Shrub epiphyte communities in relation to stand management in forests in western Oregon.  Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvalis, OR.

Rosso, A., Muir, P.S., and Rambo, T.R.  2001.  Using transplants to measure accumulation rates of epiphytic bryophytes in forests of Western Oregon.  The Bryologist 104: 430-439.

Ruchty, A., A. Rosso, and B. McCune.  2001.  Changes in epiphyte communities as the shrub Acer circinatum develops and ages.  The Bryologist 104(2):274-281.

Savage, M. 1995. Pacific Northwest Special Forest Products: An industry in transition. Journal of Forestry, 93(3): 6-11.

Schlosser, W., Blatner, K., Chapman, R., 1991. Economic and marketing implications of special forest products harvest in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Western Journal of Applied Forestry.  6(3), 67-72.

Schlosser, W., Blatner, K. and  Zamora, B.  1992.  Pacific Northwest forest lands potential for floral greenery production. Northwest Science, 66: 44-55.

Schlosser, W. and K. Blatner.  1993.  Critical aspects of the production and marketing of special forest products.  MS for the President's Forest Conference Committee.  73p.  (on file with:  Social and Economic Values Research Program, PNW Research Station, FSL, PO 3890, Portland, OR  97208-3890).

Schnepf, C. (ed.), 1995.  Dancing with an elephant:  Proceedings of the business and science of special forest products:  a conference and exposition; 1994 Jan. 26-27, Hillsboro, OR.  Washington State University Cooperative Extension.  Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.

Schofield, W.B.  1976.  Bryophytes of British Columbia III:  habitat and distributional information for selected mosses.  Syesis 9: 317-354.

Shanley, P., Pierce, A., Laird, S., 2005. Beyond timber: Certification of nontimber forest products.

Shanley, P., Pierce, A., Laird, S., Guillen, A., 2002. Tapping the Green Market.  Earthscan Publications Ltd., Sterling, Virginia, U.S.A.

Shaw, E.W., 1949.  Minor forest products of the Pacific Northwest.  Research Note 59.  USDA FS, PNW Forest and Range Experiment Station.  Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

Sonner, S.  1998.  Missing the forest for the logs.  The Oregonian, March 19, 1998.  Portland, OR.

Stotler, R., and Crandall-Stotler, B.  1977.  A checklist of the liverworts and hornworts of North America. The Bryologist 80: 405-428.

Studlar, S.M.  1982.  Succession of epiphytic bryophytes near Mountain Lake, Virginia.  The Bryologist 85: 51-63.

Studlar, S.,  2003. Moss harvest in West Virginia:  target species and incidental take.  Report submitted to the Monongahela National Forest, Elkins, West Virginia, U.S.A.

Studlar, S.,  2004.  Moss harvest in West Virginia:  increasing pressure on riparian habitats.  Botany 2004 Alpine Diversity:  Adapted to the Peaks.  July 31 - August 5, 2004, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.

Tarter, D., Nelson, D., 1995.  Conservation of the spruce fir moss mat spider (Microhexura montevega).  Regional Conference Proceedings—American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Great Lakes Region.  March 1995, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.A.

Thomas, R., 1993.  An aphid feeding on moss.  Maine Naturalist 1(1), 37-38.

TPMT:  Trinity Project Management Team.  1992.  The Trinity project:  an economic diversification strategy for rural, timber-dependent communities.  USDA S, Shasta-Trinity NF, Hayfork, CA.  13 p.

Turetsky, M.R., 2003.  Role of bryophytes in carbon and nitrogen cycling.  Bryologist 106(3), 395-409.

USDI BLM.  1993.  Managing special forest products in Oregon and Washington:  a final report.  Portland, OR. 

USDI BLM, USDA FS, 1993.  Special Forest Products (informational brochure).  R6-WIL-UP-032-93.  Salem, Oregon, U.S.A.

USDI BLM, USDA FS, 1997.  Northern Coast Range adaptive management area guide.  BLM/OR/WA/PL-97/008+1792.  Tillamook Oregon, U.S.A.

USDI BLM, USDA FS, 2003.  Draft supplemental environmental impact statement to remove or modify the survey and manage mitigation measure standards and guidelines.  BLM/OR/WA/PL-03/023+1792.  Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

USDA FS, 1963.  Special forest products for profit.  Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 278, US Government Printing Office.  Washington, D.C.

USDA FS.  1969.  Special forest products 1969 harvesting report, Oregon and Washington.  PNW Region, Portland, OR.  GPO 998-162.

USDA FS, 1975.  Floral greenery from Pacific Northwest forests.  US Government Printing Office 1975-798-323/81.  Washington, D.C.

USDA FS 1989.  Rural development opportunities in special forest products.  Coperative Forestry, Washington D.C.  23 p.

USDA FS, 1993. The forest beyond the trees: a browser's guide to special forest products. Olympic National Forest. Olympia, Washington, U.S.A.

USDA FS, 1995.  Decision notice and finding of no significant impact, special forest products program environmental assessment, forest plan amendment No. 6.  Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.

USDA FS, 2001.  National strategy for special forest products.  U. S. Government Printing Office FS-713.  Washington, D.C.

USDA FS, 2001.  Special forest products:  species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.  Vance, N., Borsting, M., Pilz, D., Freed, J. (ed.).  PNW-GTR-513.  Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.

USDA FS.  1993.  The forest beyond the trees:  a browser's guide to special forest products.  Olympic National Forest, WA.

USDA FS and USDI BLM. 1993. FEMAT: Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team, Forest ecosystem management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment. U. S. Government Printing Office 1993-793-071, Washington, D.C.

USDA FS and USDI BLM, 1994. ROD: Record of decision for amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management planning documents and Standards and guidelines for management of habitat for late-successional and old-growth forest related species within the range of the Northern Spotted Owl. U.S. Government Printing Office 1994-589-00001, Washington, D.C.

USDA FS and USDI BLM. 1994.  FSEIS:  Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on management of habitat for late-successional and old-growth forest related species within the range of the northern spotted owl.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

USFWS., 1997.  Recovery Plan for the Marbled Murrelet (Washington, Oregon, and California Populations).  Region 1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

Vance, N., Kirkland, M., 1997.  Bryophytes associated with Acer circinatum:  Recovery and growth following harvest, pp. 267-271.  In T. Kaye, A. Liston, R. Love, D. Luoma, R. Meineke and M. Wilson (eds.), Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi.  Native Plant Society of Oregon.  Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.

Vance, N., M. Borsting, D. Pilz, & J. Freed.  2001.  Special forest products species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.  USDA FS PNW-GTR-513.  Portland, Oregon, US.A.

Veneklaas, E.J., Zagt, R.J., Van Leerdam, A., Van Ek, R., Broekhoven, A.J., and Van Genderen, M.  1990.  Hydrological properties of the epiphyte mass of a montane tropical rain forest, Colombia.  Vegetatio 89: 183-192.

Vitt, D.H., J.E. Marsh, & R.B. Bovey.  1988.  Mosses, Lichens, and Ferns of Northwest North America.  Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta.

von Hagen, B., Fight, R., 1999.  Opportunities for conservation-based development of nontimber forest products in the Pacific Northwest.  USDA FS PNW-GTR-473.  Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

Wickens, G. 1991. Management issues for development of nontimber forest products. Unasylva,  42(165): 3-8.

Wiley, L.  1966.  Wild Harvest.  Pub. by L. Wiley, Portland, OR.  219 p.

Wilkinson, C. & H. Anderson. 1987. Land and resource planning in the national forests. Island Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

WOSFPC, 1997.  Annual Meeting of Western Oregon Special Forest Products Council.  Eugene, Oregon, U.S.A.


Back to Moss Harvest Site